Contexts 1600 - 1700


Date1600 - 1700
Physics related to temperature and heat
1620 Term gas coined by Johannes van Helmont; it is derived form the Flemish for chaos
1629 Giovanni Branca develops a primitive steam turbine
1630 Descartes develops concept of inertial motion where all motion resulted from collision with particles called corpuscles
1643 Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer and observes the first vacuum
1654 Invention of vacuum pump by Otto von Guericke
1654 Sealed thermometer invented by Ferdinand II
1659 Robert Boyle devises an air pump, and discovers that objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum
1662 (Robert) Boyle's Law published, stating that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional
1663 Christopher Wren invents a weather clock which automatically charts temperature and wind direction 1687 Amontons (French) working on hygrometer
1690 Denis Papin uses steam to move a piston - it is 22 years until his technique is refined by Thomas Newcomen1695 Amontons (French) working on improved barometer
1698 Basic steam engine invented by Thomas Savery
1699 Amontons published early idea of absolute zero
Other sciences


1606 The First "Computer Manual" In 1599 Galileo Galilei developed his geometric and military compass into a general-purpose mechanical analog calculator, later known in English as the sector. It was published in 1606. In 1607 Galileo brought a lawsuit against Baldessar Capra for copying the proportional and military compass that Galileo had invented. It may have been the first technological litigation.
1614 The Invention of Logarithms John Napier of Scotland publishes his Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, announcing his invention of logarithms, with the goal of increasing calculating speed and reducing drudgery.
1620 Scientific method analysed by Francis Bacon
1637 "Je pense, donc je suis." French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist René Descartes issues his //Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, & chercher la verité‚ dans les sciences//. As Descartes spent much of his life in the Dutch Republic he had the work published in Leiden.
1665 Graphic Portrayal of the Hitherto Unknown Microcosm
Robert Hooke publishes //Micrographia: Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses// in London. It is the first book devoted entirely to microscopical observations, and also the first book to pair its descriptions with profuse and detailed illustrations. 1668 Robert Hooke, presenting a lecture to the Royal Society, claims that earthquakes - not the Biblical Flood - have caused fossils to be found on mountaintops and buried in stone
1670 Robert Boyle discovered that the reaction between a metal and an acid produces hydrogen
1676 Minute hand introduced to clocks1680 Second hand introduced for clocks and watches
1684 Street lighting introduced to London
1697 The concept of phlogiston, a mysterious element involved in burning and rusting, introduced by Georg Stahl

1665 - 1666 The Oldest Continuous Journal of an Academy of Science
Philosophical Transactions: Giving some Accompt of the Present Undertakings, Studies, and Labours of the Ingenious in Many Considerable Parts of the World are issued in London by the Royal Society. This is the beginning of the oldest continuous journal of an academy of science.
1687 Newton's Principia Mathematica
Isaac Newton publishes Philosophia naturalis principia mathematica. It will become one of the most famous and most influential scientific works ever written.




Social

1602 Bodeliean Library at Oxford University opened
1602 Ambrosian Library founded in Milan
1605 The First European Newspaper. Johann Carolus, who previously earned his living by producing hand-written news sheets for wealthy subscribers, acquires a printing press and publishes the first European newspaper, Relation, in Strasbourg.
1608 The First Prepaid Letter Sheets The Venetian government issues prepaid letter sheets -- the first offically sold prepaid postal stationery.
1630 beginning of the High Baroque period in Italy
1662 Demography & Vital Statistics John Graunt, a draper in London, founds the sciences of demography and vital statistics, and publishes the first tables of life expectancy in his Natural and Political Observations Mentioned in a Following Index, and Made upon the Bills of Mortality.
Political

1625 Beginning of the reign of Charles I of England.
1642 Beginning of civil war in England (ended 1649).
1648 Peace of Westphalia, end of the Thirty Years' War.
1649 Charles I of England beheaded by Cromwell and the "Rump" Parliament.
1661 Louis XIV (1643-1715) begins governing France. and Charles II in England