Contexts 1700 - 1750


1700 - 1750
Physics related to temperature and heat1702-3 Amontons working on constant volume air thermometer
1709 Abraham Darby introduces coke smelting for iron-making
1709 Alcohol thermometer invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit1710 Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur develops the first thermometer
1714 Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer

Other sciences

1708 Three Primary Colors An anonymous third edition of Traite de la peinture en mignature printed in The Hague describes trichromancy in terms of three Couleurs primitives--yellow, red and blue. At this time Jacob Christophe le Blon is working as a miniaturist in Amsterdam.
1723 George Stahl publishes Foundations of Dogmatic and Experimental Chemistry, publicising phlogiston
1724 Elementa Chemiae (Elements of Chemistry) published by Dutch physician Hermann Boerhaave
1730 Plant and animal classification system proposed by Linnaeus
1735 Giovanni Arduino was the first to put forward a rock classification system based on the appearance of the rocks and on the occurrence of fossils. He classified the rocks into Primitive, Secondary, Tertiary and Volcanic
1735 Systema Naturae Physician Carl Linnaeus publishes in Stockholm, Sweden, his Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with [generic] characters, [specific] differences, synonyms, places." This work is issued as a series of large charts printed on both sides of seven sheets, or as a series of charts printed on one side only of twelve sheets. It is the first statement of the Linnean classification system.
1737 John Harrison produces a naval chronometer, allowing determination of exact longitudes at sea
1743 The first geological map is produced by Christopher Packe; it depicts South England
1745 Georges Buffon proposes the first catastrophe theory of the formation of the Solar System

1704 The First Printing Press Operated by a Muslim to Print in Arabic in the Middle East Under the patronage of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Syrai, Abd Allah Zakhir, an apprentice goldsmith, with the help of his brother, sets up a press at Aleppo, Syria. Without ever having seen a printing press in operation, Zakhir engraves all the matrices, makes the tools, and casts the type. Between 1706 and 1711 nine titles will be issued from the Aleppan press. This is the first printing press operated by a Muslim to print in Arabic in the Middle East.
1736 First Use of Color Printing in a Medical or Scientific Book Bernhard Siegfried Albinus of Leiden publishes Dissertatio de arteries et venis intestinorum hominis. Adjecta icon coloribus distincta containing a color mezzotint printed by the painter Jan Ladmiral.This is among the earliest applications of color printing, and the first use of color printing in a medical or scientific book. Between 1736 and 1741 Albinus will issue six pamphlets containing color mezzotints by Ladmiral , which form the first series of full-color anatomical color-printed illustrations ever made. They are also the only color prints produced by Jan Ladmiral. Ladmiral had learned the process of color printing from the artist Jacob Christoph le Blon, the inventor of the process for printing color mezzotints using the three primary colors.
April 1744 – May 1746 The First Periodical Written for Women by a Woman English writer, actress and publisher Eliza Haywood writes //The Female Spectator//. This monthly periodical, written in answer to the contemporary journal, The Spectator by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, is the first periodical written for women by a woman.

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