Contexts 1850 to 1900

1850 - 1899
Physics related to temperature and heat1851 Kelvin proposes absolute zero
1874 Kelvin puts forward the Second Law of thermodynamics1892 Dewar (vacuum) flask invented by James Dewar
1894 Wilhelm Wien discovers how temperature affects the colour of a blackbody

Other sciences
Foucault demonstrates the Earth's rotation using a pendulum
1857 The first synthetic dye factory was set up by William Perkin, for the production of mauveine
1858 First Printed Exposition of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection August 20 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace publish "On the tendency of species to form varieties; and on the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural selection" in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society. This is the first printed formal exposition of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwin had developed the essential elements of his theory by 1838 and set them on paper in 1844; however, he chose to keep his work on evolution unpublished for the time, instead concentrating his energies first on the preparation for publication of his geological work on the Beagle voyage , and then on an exhaustive eight-year study of the barnacle genus Cirripedia .
1859 Gaston Plante invents a storage lead-acid battery (now used as car batteries)
1859 Publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species
1860 The first international meeting of chemists is organised in Karlsruhe by Kekule1869 The first Periodic Table is formulated and published by Mendeleev
1873 Maxwell describes light as electromagnetic radiation
1887 The theory of electrolytic dissociation is put forward by Arrhenius
1850 The First Telegraph Cable between England and France John and Jacob Brett lay the first telegraph cable between England and France. After a French fisherman cuts the cable, thinking it is a new kind of seaweed, they install an armored cable in 1851 that will last for many years.
1863 US National Academy of Sciences initiated by Abraham Lincoln
1868 First traffic lights introduced to ease problems in London
1869 Joseph Lockyer founded Nature journal
1869 In the US, a transcontinental railway is completed
1871 Gramme introduced the first commercially-significant electric motor, following 50 years of research across the world
1874 Invention of the QWERTY Keyboard Typewriter
Christopher Sholes, Samuel Soule and Carlos Glidden invented the first practical typewriter in 1868.
1875 The Earliest Exhibition Exclusively of Scientific Instruments
The earliest international exposition exclusively of scientific instruments is held at the South Kensington Museum, London.
1875 Bell Invents the telephone March 10
Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone. Speaking through the instrument to his assistant, Thomas A. Watson, in the next room, Bell says "Mr. Watson--come here--I want to see you."
1876 Elizabeth Bragg, graduated from Berkeley as a Civil Engineer
1877 The First Regular Telephone Line Construction of the first regular telephone line is completed. It runs from Boston to Somerville, Massachusetts.
1877 Invention of the Microphone March 4 Emile Berliner invents the microphone. It is used as a telephone speech transmitter.
1882 First vaccine for rabies
1885 Daimler Invents the Internal Combustion Engine Gottlieb Daimler invents the internal combustion engine and Karl Benz builds a single-cylinder engine for a motor car.
1887 An estimated 1 million people die as the result of flooding, when the Chinese Yellow River bursts its banks
1893 Invention of the Automobile Karl Benz invents a four-wheel automobile. Charles and Frank Duryea produce the first automobile built in America during this year.
1899 Johan Vaaler invented the paperclip
David Livingstone became the first European to see Victoria Falls
1860 Burke and Wills led Great Northern Exploration Expedition to cross Australia from South to North
1867 Alaska is bought by the US from Russia