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Physics related to temperature and heat
Other sciences
Before 1600
1592 Galileo Galilei develops the thermoscope
1593 Galileo Galilei invents a water thermometer

1559 Who Discovered the Pulmonary Circulation?
In the year of his death Italian physician and surgeon Realdo Colombo publishes De re anatomica libri XV in Venice. Colombo is best known for his discovery of the pulmonary or lesser circulation, i.e., the passage of blood from the right cardiac ventricle to the left via the lungs. Although this discovery was first published in the Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556) by Colombo's friend and former pupil Juan Valverde de Hamusco, the evidence in both Valverde's and Colombo's accounts indicates that the discovery was Colombo's, made through his vivisectional observations of the heart and pulmonary vessels. Colombo's account of the pulmonary circuit was preceded by that in Michael Servetus's Christianismi restitutio, and by the thirteenth-century account of Ibn al-Nafis. However, because Servetus Christianismi restitutio (1553) was completely supressed, and Ibn al-Nafis' work was not published until the early 20th century, there is no evidence that either was available to Colombo at the time.
1563 – 1564 The Eustachian Tube and Many Other Discoveries Physician Bartolomeo Eustachi publishes Opuscula anatomica, annotated by Pier Matteo Pini, in Venice. It includes 8 engraved full-page text illustrations probably drawn by Eustachi and his relative Pier Matteo Pini, and engraved by Giulio de Musi. Pini also prepared the 168 pages of annotations to Eustachi's anatomical treatises. The illustrations are on the unnumbered pages between pp. 1-20 (first series). These plates are the first 8 in the series of 47 anatomical plates that Eustachi and Pini prepared in 1552, and the only ones of that series published during Eustachi's lifetime.
In 1562 and 1563 Eustachi wrote a series of anatomical treatises on the kidneys (De renum structura), the organ of hearing (De auditus organis), the venous system (De vena quae azygos graecis dicitur) and the teeth (De dentibus), which he issued together under the title Opuscula anatomica. The treatise on the kidney, the first work devoted specifically to that organ, showed a detailed knowledge of the kidney surpassing any earlier work; it contained the first account of the adrenal (suprarenal) gland and a correct determination of the relative levels of the kidneys. The treatise on the ear provided the first post-classical account of the Eustachian tube, while the work on the azygos vein contained the first description of the thoracic duct and of the valvula venae in the right ventricle of the heart, the so-called "Eustachian valve." In his treatise on dentistry Eustachi was the first to study the teeth in any great detail: basing his work on the dissection of fetuses and stillborn infants, he gave an important description of the first and second dentitions, described the hard outer tissue and soft inner structure of the teeth, and attempted an explanation of the problem (not yet completely solved) of the sensitivity of the tooth's hard structure. This last work was also issued separately; it bears its own title-leaf dated 1563.
1563 In an Expose of the Witchcraft Delusion, One of the First Scientific Approaches to the Study of Mental Illness. Dutch physician and demonologist Johann Weyer publishes De praestigiis daemonum, et incantationibus ac veneficiis, libri V. In this celebrated exposé of the witchcraft delusion Weyer presented one of the first scientific approaches to the study of mental illness. Defying the authorities of the Inquisition and the doctrines of the Malleus maleficarum (noticed in this database), Weyer asserted the most witches were actually suffering from mental illness. He backed his claim with careful descriptions of a number of case histories from his own clinical experience, containing some of the earliest references to purely psychological treatment. To emphasize the superstitious ignorance of doctors who adhered to demonological theory, Weyer analyzed the effects of the stupefying and hallucinatory drugs used in sixteenth-century medicine, attributing many aspects of witchcraft to their effects. He recognized the relationship between a highly suggestible temperament and mental instability, and described the phenomenon of mass contagion of mental illness.
1570 The First Medical Book Printed in the Western Hemisphere with the Earliest Illustrations of Plants Printed in the Western Hemisphere Printer Pedro Ocharte, born Pierre Ocharte in Rouen, France, working in Mexico City, issues Opera medicinalia by the Spanish physician, Francisco Bravo. Ocharte had married the daughter of Juan Pablos, the first printer in the New World, and inherited his equipment. Opera medicinalia includes a woodcut title border and a few botanical woodcuts, including images to distinguish the false saraparilla of Mexico from the true Spanish sarsaparilla of Dioscorides. It is the first medical book printed in the Western Hemisphere, and its botanical images are the first illustrations of plants printed in the Western Hemisphere.
1598 The First Book Devoted Exclusively to the Structure of an Animal Other than Man. Ottavio Ruini edits and has published, with a dedication to Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, Dell'anotomia [sic], et dell'infirmita del cavallo [Book ii: Dell'infirmita del cavallo] by Carlo Ruini, Bolognese aristocrat, senator, and high-ranking lawyer. It is the first book devoted exclusively to the structure of an animal other than man (the horse).
1520 - 1522 First circumnavigation of the world.
1556 The First Treatise on Mathematics Published in the Western Hemisphere and the First Textbook on Any Subject Besides Religion Printed Outside of Europe 1556 Brother Juan Diez, a companion of Hernando Cortès in the conquest of New Spain, publishes in Mexico City at the press of Juan Pablo, the Sumario Compendioso. It is the earliest treatise on mathematics published in the western hemisphere, and also the first textbook on any subject besides religious instruction to be printed outside of Europe.
1563 It is Forbidden for any French Printer to Print without Permission, under Penalty of being Hanged or Strangled By Letters Patent of the thirteen year old Charles IX of France (Mantes September 10) it is forbidden for any French printer to print without permission, under penalty of being hanged or strangled.
1566 Notzie Scritte - one of the first newspapers appears in Venice
1571 Francesco Patrizi's Discussiones peripateticae anti-Aristotelian arguments
1574 University of Berlin is founded
1575 Italian painter Frederigo Zuccari paints portraits of Elizabeth I and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
1579 Paulo Paruta, official historian of Venice and disciple of Macchiavelli begins his Historiae Vinetiana
1580 Italian cookery predominant in Europe
1598 Edict of Nantes, under which Protestants in France are allowed to practice their religion in peace.
1290 Edward I Expels the Jews from England
1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Turks 1492 Columbus lands in the New World Jews and Moslems expelled from Spain
1492 Vasco Da Game lands in Goa (Indian subcontinent)
1500 Birth of Charles V of Hapsburg, who became Lord of the Netherlands in 1515, King of Spain in 1516, and was elected Holy Roman Emperor (German-speaking region) in 1519. He ruled most of Europe until his abdication in 1556.
1558 Elizabeth I of Tudor becomes Queen of England. Her rule lasts until her death in 1603.
1562 Beginning of wars of religion in France. These last until Henry IV of Navarre ascends the throne in 1589.
1600 - 1700
1620 Term gas coined by Johannes van Helmont; it is derived form the Flemish for chaos
1629 Giovanni Branca develops a primitive steam turbine
1630 Descartes develops concept of inertial motion where all motion resulted from collision with particles called corpuscles
1643 Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer and observes the first vacuum
1654 Invention of vacuum pump by Otto von Guericke
1654 Sealed thermometer invented by Ferdinand II
1659 Robert Boyle devises an air pump, and discovers that objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum
1662 (Robert) Boyle's Law published, stating that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional
1663 Christopher Wren invents a weather clock which automatically charts temperature and wind direction 1687 Amontons (French) working on hygrometer
1690 Denis Papin uses steam to move a piston - it is 22 years until his technique is refined by Thomas Newcomen1695 Amontons (French) working on improved barometer
1698 Basic steam engine invented by Thomas Savery
1699 Amontons published early idea of absolute zero

1606 The First "Computer Manual" In 1599 Galileo Galilei developed his geometric and military compass into a general-purpose mechanical analog calculator, later known in English as the sector. It was published in 1606. In 1607 Galileo brought a lawsuit against Baldessar Capra for copying the proportional and military compass that Galileo had invented. It may have been the first technological litigation.
1614 The Invention of Logarithms John Napier of Scotland publishes his Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio, announcing his invention of logarithms, with the goal of increasing calculating speed and reducing drudgery.
1620 Scientific method analysed by Francis Bacon
1637 "Je pense, donc je suis." French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist René Descartes issues his //Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, & chercher la verité‚ dans les sciences//. As Descartes spent much of his life in the Dutch Republic he had the work published in Leiden.
1665 Graphic Portrayal of the Hitherto Unknown Microcosm
Robert Hooke publishes //Micrographia: Or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies Made by Magnifying Glasses// in London. It is the first book devoted entirely to microscopical observations, and also the first book to pair its descriptions with profuse and detailed illustrations. 1668 Robert Hooke, presenting a lecture to the Royal Society, claims that earthquakes - not the Biblical Flood - have caused fossils to be found on mountaintops and buried in stone
1670 Robert Boyle discovered that the reaction between a metal and an acid produces hydrogen
1676 Minute hand introduced to clocks1680 Second hand introduced for clocks and watches
1684 Street lighting introduced to London
1697 The concept of phlogiston, a mysterious element involved in burning and rusting, introduced by Georg Stahl

1665 - 1666 The Oldest Continuous Journal of an Academy of Science
Philosophical Transactions: Giving some Accompt of the Present Undertakings, Studies, and Labours of the Ingenious in Many Considerable Parts of the World are issued in London by the Royal Society. This is the beginning of the oldest continuous journal of an academy of science.
1687 Newton's Principia Mathematica
Isaac Newton publishes Philosophia naturalis principia mathematica. It will become one of the most famous and most influential scientific works ever written.

1602 Bodeliean Library at Oxford University opened
1602 Ambrosian Library founded in Milan
1605 The First European Newspaper. Johann Carolus, who previously earned his living by producing hand-written news sheets for wealthy subscribers, acquires a printing press and publishes the first European newspaper, Relation, in Strasbourg.
1608 The First Prepaid Letter Sheets The Venetian government issues prepaid letter sheets -- the first offically sold prepaid postal stationery.
1630 beginning of the High Baroque period in Italy
1662 Demography & Vital Statistics John Graunt, a draper in London, founds the sciences of demography and vital statistics, and publishes the first tables of life expectancy in his Natural and Political Observations Mentioned in a Following Index, and Made upon the Bills of Mortality.
1625 Beginning of the reign of Charles I of England.
1642 Beginning of civil war in England (ended 1649).
1648 Peace of Westphalia, end of the Thirty Years' War.
1649 Charles I of England beheaded by Cromwell and the "Rump" Parliament.
1661 Louis XIV (1643-1715) begins governing France. and Charles II in England
1700 - 1750
1702-3 Amontons working on constant volume air thermometer
1709 Abraham Darby introduces coke smelting for iron-making
1709 Alcohol thermometer invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit1710 Rene Antoine Ferchault de Reaumur develops the first thermometer
1714 Gabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury thermometer

1708 Three Primary Colors An anonymous third edition of Traite de la peinture en mignature printed in The Hague describes trichromancy in terms of three Couleurs primitives--yellow, red and blue. At this time Jacob Christophe le Blon is working as a miniaturist in Amsterdam.
1723 George Stahl publishes Foundations of Dogmatic and Experimental Chemistry, publicising phlogiston
1724 Elementa Chemiae (Elements of Chemistry) published by Dutch physician Hermann Boerhaave
1730 Plant and animal classification system proposed by Linnaeus
1735 Giovanni Arduino was the first to put forward a rock classification system based on the appearance of the rocks and on the occurrence of fossils. He classified the rocks into Primitive, Secondary, Tertiary and Volcanic
1735 Systema Naturae Physician Carl Linnaeus publishes in Stockholm, Sweden, his Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with [generic] characters, [specific] differences, synonyms, places." This work is issued as a series of large charts printed on both sides of seven sheets, or as a series of charts printed on one side only of twelve sheets. It is the first statement of the Linnean classification system.
1737 John Harrison produces a naval chronometer, allowing determination of exact longitudes at sea
1743 The first geological map is produced by Christopher Packe; it depicts South England
1745 Georges Buffon proposes the first catastrophe theory of the formation of the Solar System

1704 The First Printing Press Operated by a Muslim to Print in Arabic in the Middle East Under the patronage of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Syrai, Abd Allah Zakhir, an apprentice goldsmith, with the help of his brother, sets up a press at Aleppo, Syria. Without ever having seen a printing press in operation, Zakhir engraves all the matrices, makes the tools, and casts the type. Between 1706 and 1711 nine titles will be issued from the Aleppan press. This is the first printing press operated by a Muslim to print in Arabic in the Middle East.
1736 First Use of Color Printing in a Medical or Scientific Book Bernhard Siegfried Albinus of Leiden publishes Dissertatio de arteries et venis intestinorum hominis. Adjecta icon coloribus distincta containing a color mezzotint printed by the painter Jan Ladmiral.This is among the earliest applications of color printing, and the first use of color printing in a medical or scientific book. Between 1736 and 1741 Albinus will issue six pamphlets containing color mezzotints by Ladmiral , which form the first series of full-color anatomical color-printed illustrations ever made. They are also the only color prints produced by Jan Ladmiral. Ladmiral had learned the process of color printing from the artist Jacob Christoph le Blon, the inventor of the process for printing color mezzotints using the three primary colors.
April 1744 – May 1746 The First Periodical Written for Women by a Woman English writer, actress and publisher Eliza Haywood writes //The Female Spectator//. This monthly periodical, written in answer to the contemporary journal, The Spectator by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, is the first periodical written for women by a woman.
To be added
1750 - 1780
1761 Latent heat and specific heat described by Joseph Black
1787 Charles' Law established (gases)
1798 Rumford discovers the link between heat and friction
1752 Nicolas Desmarest put forward a theory that England and France were once connected by a land bridge1755 Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide
1753 The British Museum is Founded January 11 The will of English physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane bequeathes his collection of 70,000 objects, including a library, and an herbarium to Britain as the basis for the British Museum.
1758 Binomial Nomenclature for Animals Carl Linnaeus publishes the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, in which he introduces binomial nomenclature for animal species. Using this system, he names, and therefore classifies, all animal species known at this time.
1772 Discovery that Growing Plants Restore Air Vitiated by Combustion or Respiration British theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist Joseph Priestley publishes "Observations on different kinds of air" in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. This is his first paper on the subject, reporting the results of his pneumatic researches since 1770. These included the isolation and identification of nitric oxide and anhydrous hydrochloric acid gases, the discovery that growing plants restored air vitiated by combustion or animal respiration, and the discovery of "nitrous air" (nitrous oxide).
1766 Hydrogen discovered by Henry Cavendish
1774 Joseph Priestley discovered dephlogisticated air, which Antoine Lavoisier would later rename oxygene
1775 Development of geology as a separate branch of science
1775 Hydrochloric and sulphuric acids discovered by Joseph Priestley1776 Lavoisier invented oxygen cutting of metals
1777 Antoine Lavoisier put forward the idea of chemical compounds, composed of more than one element

1764 Hargreaves Invents the Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny, which spins eight threads simultaneously. This is a major step toward what will be called the Industrial Revolution.
1768 - 1771 Encyclopaedia Britannica Begins "A Society of Gentlemen in Scotland" based in Edinburgh publishes in 100 fascicules issued weekly the Encyclopaedia Britannica; or a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences Compiled upon a New Plan in which the different Sciences and Arts and digest into distinct Treatsies or Systems; and the various Technical Terms etc. are explained as they occur in the order of the Alphabets. Illustrated with One Hundred and Sixty Copperplates.
1770 James Cook lands at Botany Bay, Australia
1775 Industrial Revolution in England starts; this is a boom time for invention and mechanisation

1776 The Age of "Laissez-Faire" Scottish Economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith publishes An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. This work argues "that the free market, while appearing chaotic and unrestrained, is actually guided to produce the right amount and variety of goods by a so-called "invisible hand". . . . Smith believed that while human motives were often driven by selfishness and greed, the competition in the free market would tend to benefit society as a whole by keeping prices low, while still building in an incentive for a wide variety of goods and services. Nevertheless, he was wary of businessmen and argued against the formation of monopolies.
1781 Technology Leading to Disruptive Economic and Social Change
Richard Arkwright builds a factory for his hydraulic spinning machine, one of the first developments of mass production, which will eventually cause disruptive economic and social changes characteristic of the Industrial Revolution.
1775 The American Revolutionary War Begins April 17 The American Revolutionary War begins with the rides of Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 17 and the battles of Lexington and Concord the following day.
1780 - 1800
1798 Rumford discovers the link between heat and friction
1779 Discovery of Photosynthesis Physician Jan Ingen-Housz publishes Experiments upon Vegetables, Discovering their Great Power of Purifying the Common Air in the Sunshine, and of Injuring it in the Shade and at Night. While investigating Joseph Priestley's discovery made in 1771 that plants could "restore" air made unfit for respiration through combusion or putrefaction, Ingen-Housz became the first to observe and elucidate the processes of photosynthesis and plant respiration. In his Experiments upon Vegetables, Ingen-Housz established that only the green parts of a plant give off the "restoring" gas (oxygen), and only when exposed to visible sunlight. He also found that plants, "like animals, exhibit respiration, that respiration continues day and night, and that all parts of the plant-- green as well as nongreen, flowers and fruit as well as roots-- take part in the process.
1780 Johann Dobereiner observes some similarities between elements, the first indications of periodicity
1783 Self-winding clock patented by Benjamin Hanks1786 Philosopher Immanuel Kant states that chemistry is not a proper science
1784 The Effect of Gravity on Light English natural philosopher and geology John Michell publishes in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society Vol. 74, Pt. 1 "On the Means of discovering the Distance, Magnitude &c. of the Fixed Stars, in consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of their Light, in case such a Diminution should be found to take place in any of them, and such other Data should be procured from Observations, as would be farther necessary for that Purpose."
1787 Werner established a classification of rock formations which is regarded as the basis of descriptive petrography. He also proposed a theory of neptunism which stated that igneous and metamorphic rocks derive from a marine origin
1796 Edward Jenner creates a vaccine for smallpox
1798 The existence of black holes is first predicted by Laplace
1798 The mass of the Earth is determined by Cavendish

1782 German geographer Crome produces the first thematic map, showing economic production data across Europe
1791 Faster than a Messenger on Horseback March 2 Claude Chappe his brother send the first transmission over their optical telegraph: “si vous reussissez, vous serez bientôt couvert de gloire” (If you succeed, you will soon bask in glory). The initial experimental line runs between Brulon and Parce, a distance of ten miles (16 km).
1791 Peal patents the waterproofing of fabrics with a rubber solution
1793 The First Free Public Library By an act of the revolutionary French National Convention, the Bibliotheque Nationale de France becomes the first free public library in the world.
1795 Invention of Modern Pencil Lead During the Napoleonic wars, France, under naval blockade imposed by Great Britain, is unable to import pure graphite sticks from England. Nor can France import English pencils or the inferior German pencils. To solve this problem, Nicholas Jacques Conté, an officer in Napoleon's army, discovers a method of mixing powdered graphite with clay and forming the mixture into rods that are fired in a kiln. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, the hardness of the graphite rod can also be varied. "This method of [pencil lead] manufacture which had been earlier discovered by the Austrian Joseph Hardtmuth of Koh-I-Noor in 1790 remains in use."

1798 Malthus on Population
Economist and demographer Thomas Malthus publishes An essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society.
1798 - 1799 The First Paper-Making Machine Louis-Nicolas Robert invents the first paper-making machine. It makes a continuous, unbroken sheet of paper that must later be cut. Because of disagreements between Robert and his partners, St. Leger and Francois Didot, and also because of financial disruptions caused by the French Revolution, it will be difficult for Robert to make the necessary improvements to the paper machine, and Francois Didot will attempt to have it developed in England.
1789 Bastille Day July 14 The French Revolution begins.
1800 - 1820
1807 Jean Fourier publishes "On the Propagation of Heat in Solid Bodies"
1800 William Nicholson and Carlisle decomposed water into hydrogen and oxygen via electrolysis
1800 Herschel discovers that sunlight has an infrared region1800 Lamarck publishes a theory of evolution
1800 Johann Wilhelm Ritter replicates Nicholson and Carlisle's electrochemical experiments and collects hydrogen and oxygen gases separately at the electrodes, a significant step in electrochemistry1800 James Ross discovers the magnetic North Pole
1801 Thomas Young discovers interference of light
1801 Discovery of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by Johann Wilhelm Ritter
1801 Wollaston discovers dark absorption lines in the Solar spectrum1803 John Dalton developed the first useful atomic theory of matter
1804 The Carbon Content of Soil is Produced by Vegetation Chemist Nicholas-Théodore de Saussure publishes Recherches chimiques sur la végetation. In this foundation work on phytochemistry, Saussure analyzed the chief active components of plants, their synthesis and decomposition. He specified the relationships between vegetation and the environment. He showed that plants grown in closed vessels took their entire carbon content from the enclosed gas, and thus demolished the old theory that plants derive carbon from the so-called 'humus" of the soil. Conversely, he demonstrated that the carbon content of soil is produced by vegetation.
1805 Gay-Lussac proves that water is composed of two parts hydrogen to one part oxygen by volume
1805 Luigi Brugnatelli invents modern electroplating
1806 Humphry Davy lectures to the Royal Society, describing the use of electricity to decompose matter into its elements1807 The Geological Society of London becomes the first scientific society devoted to the science of geology
1808 Modern atomic theory is put forward by John Dalton in his book 'A new system of chemical philosophy'
1808 - 1827 First Periodic Table of the Elements John Dalton publishes in Manchester, England, //A New System of Chemical Philosophy// in Volume 1, parts 1 and 2, and Volume II, part 1. Dalton's chemical atomic theory was the first to give significance to the relative weights of the ultimate particles of all known compounds, and to provide a quantitative explanation of the phenomena of chemical reaction. Dalton believed that all matter was composed of indestructible and indivisible atoms of various weights, each weight corresponding to one of the chemical elements, and that these atoms remained unchanged during chemical processes. Dalton's work with relative atomic weights prompted him to construct the first periodic table of elements (in Vol. i, pt. 1), to formulate laws concerning their combination and to provide schematic representations of various possible combinations of atoms. His equation of the concepts "atom" and "chemical element" was of fundamental importance, as it provided the chemist with a new and enormously fruitful model of reality.
1813 Berzelius develops the chemical symbols and formulae used today
Frenchman Rene Lannec invents the stethoscope
1819 The Natural History of Man
Surgeon and scientist William Lawrence publishes Lectures on Physiology, Zoology and the Natural History of Man. This work set out Lawrence’s radical—and to our eyes, remarkably advanced—ideas concerning evolution and heredity.
1800 Phasing Out Latin as the International Language Around this time publication of scientific and medical books in Latin—the international language of science since the Roman Empire—has for the most part ceased. Most scientific and medical books will henceforth be published in their language of authorship, or in French, German or English.
1800 Foundation of Royal Institution of Great Britain
1800 The Industrial Revolution Advances At this stage in the Industrial Revolution all phases of cloth production are performed by machines.
1801 First Edition of the Qur'an Printed by Muslims The Qur'an first appears in a printed edition issued by Muslims in Kazan (today the capital of Tatarstan 800 km from Moscow). Prior to this date, and for most of the nineteenth century, the Qur'an was primarily transmitted by manuscript copying.
1811 Luddites Workers and craftsmen concerned about the loss of jobs due to automation found the Luddite movement. Among the examples of automation they destroy are Jacquard looms.
1815 Indonesia's Mount Tambora explodes, sending enough dust into the air to lower temperatures for a year and kill 12,000
1816 Three years after building the first textile mill, Francis Lowell builds a power loom
1817 First major cholera pandemic sweeps across Asia and lasts until 1823
1804 Haiti gains independence and becomes the first black-governed nation in the Western Hemisphere
1819 South Shetland Islands discovered by British explorer William Smith
1820 British explorer William Smith is the first to sight the Antarctic mainland
1820 - 1850
1821 Seebeck invents the thermocouple
1824 Sadi Carnot publishes a major work on thermodynamics, becoming an uncredited pioneer in the area
1842 Principle of conservation of energy put forward by Julius Mayer
1843 Joule describes the mechanical equivalent of heat
1846 Lord Kelvin uses the temperature of Earth to calculate that Earth is about 100 million years old. He does not take into account heat from radioactivity, which made his estimate very short of the true age
1848 Kelvin develops his temperature scale
1850 Seebeck discovers thermoelectricity, where the application of heat to a metal junction generates electric current
1850 Robert Bunsen invents the Bunsen burner
1820 The Royal Astronomical Society is founded
1820 The laws of electrodynamics established by Andre Ampere
1821 Dynamo principle described by Faraday
1824 The Greenhouse Effect French mathematician and physicist Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier publishes "Remarques générales sur les températures du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires," Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 27, 136–67. In this paper he shows how gases in the atmosphere might increase the surface temperature of the earth. This will later be called the greenhouse effect.

1824 Animal Ecology
Physician and physiologist William Frederic Edwards publishes De l'influence des agents physiques sur la vie. It is a founding work of animal ecology. 1826 Ampere publishes electrodynamic theory in 'Theorie des phenomenes electrodynamiques' ('Theory of Electrodynamic Phenomena')
Jean-Baptiste Fourier proposed the existence of an atmospheric effect which keeps the Earth warmer than expected (ozone layer)
1827 Ohm's law of electrical resistance established
1828 Brownian Motion Botanist Robert Brown publishes for private distribution a small number of copies of his 16-page pamphlet entitled A Brief Account of Microscopical Observations Made in the Months of June, July, and August 1827, on the Particles Contained in the Pollen of Plants; and on the General Existence of Active Molecules in Organic and Inorganic bodies.
1830 Charles Lyell published 'The principles of geology'. He suggests a subdivision of the Tertiary, (Pliocene, Miocene, Eocene) Period based on the relative number of fossils similar to living forms. His subdivision is still largely accepted. His studies show that the Earth must be several million years old
1831 Faraday discovers electromagnetic induction
1833 Michael Faraday revolutionises electrochemistry: he introduces the laws of electrolysis and coins terms such as electrode, anode, cathode, ion, cation, anion, and electrolyte
1839 William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell, combining hydrogen and oxygen to produce electrical power
1849 French physicist Armand Fizeau measures the speed of light
1822 The First Indigenous Arabic Press in Egypt A government press is set up at Bulaq, Egypt. to print manuals for the military, an official manual for the administration, and textbooks for the new schools. This is the first indigenous Arabic press set up in Egypt by Muslims. It is also the first government press on the African continent, apart from the short-lived presses briefly established by Napoleon. By 1851 it will issue 526 works.
1822 The First Book to Argue for Birth Control by Contraception Francis Place, who works as a tailor, publishes Illustrations and Proofs of the Principle of Population; Including an Examination of the Proposed Remedies of Mr. Malthus, and a Reply to the Objections of Mr. Godwin and Others. It is the first book to argue for birth control by contraception.
1825 The First Railroad George Stephenson's Locomotion No. 1,the first steam engine to carry passengers and freight on a regular basis, begins operation. The Stockton and Darlington Railway opens for business.
1825 World population reached 1 billion
1825 Opening of Stockton and Darlington Railway, the world's first passenger railway, signalling the start of mass transport
1829 The Braille System Louis Braille, blind from the age of 5, publishes the Braille system of printing and reading for the blind that will eventually become the standard method. The system represents letters and numbers by combinations of six dots. The title of his book, published in French, is translated as the Method of Writing Words, Music and Plain Song by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged by Them. Most of the text of this book is published through the traditional Hauy system of printing for the blind using raised letters. However, Braille introduces his new system briefly in this work. In 1837 Braille will add symbols for mathematics and music to his system.
1831 British Association for the Advancement of Science founded
1832 Arkansas Hot Springs established as a national reservation, setting a precedent for Yellowstone and eventually, a national park system in the US
1833 Scrope publishes a world map containing population density
1833 First use of the term scientist, coined by William Whewell
1839 Daguerreotypes: The First Commonly Used Photographic Process January 7 Francois Arago makes the first brief announcement to the Academie des Sciences of the painter, Louis-Jacques Daguerre's, photographic process called Daguerreotype. Later this year Daguerre will publish in Paris his first account of the process in a pamphlet called Historique et Description des Procedes du Dagurreotype et du Diorama. Daguerre's method of fixing an image on a metal plate becomes the first commonly used photographic process. It produces a single positive image.

1840 William Henry Fox Talbot developed the first latent photographic image on paper treated with a subtractum of silver iodide and washed in gallic acid in conjunction with silver nitrate and acetic acid. He named this process the Calotype.
1848 'Science' magazine first published
1848 Maria Mitchell became the first woman appointed to the US Academy of Arts and Sciences. She later earned the first advanced degree awarded to a woman and became the first female professor of astronomy in the US
1822 Liberia established as a country for freed slaves
1850 - 1899
1851 Kelvin proposes absolute zero
1874 Kelvin puts forward the Second Law of thermodynamics1892 Dewar (vacuum) flask invented by James Dewar
1894 Wilhelm Wien discovers how temperature affects the colour of a blackbody

1851 Foucault demonstrates the Earth's rotation using a pendulum
1857 The first synthetic dye factory was set up by William Perkin, for the production of mauveine
1858 First Printed Exposition of the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection August 20 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace publish "On the tendency of species to form varieties; and on the perpetuation of varieties and species by natural selection" in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society. This is the first printed formal exposition of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwin had developed the essential elements of his theory by 1838 and set them on paper in 1844; however, he chose to keep his work on evolution unpublished for the time, instead concentrating his energies first on the preparation for publication of his geological work on the Beagle voyage , and then on an exhaustive eight-year study of the barnacle genus Cirripedia .
1859 Gaston Plante invents a storage lead-acid battery (now used as car batteries)
1859 Publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species
1860 The first international meeting of chemists is organised in Karlsruhe by Kekule1869 The first Periodic Table is formulated and published by Mendeleev
1873 Maxwell describes light as electromagnetic radiation
1887 The theory of electrolytic dissociation is put forward by Arrhenius
1850 The First Telegraph Cable between England and France John and Jacob Brett lay the first telegraph cable between England and France. After a French fisherman cuts the cable, thinking it is a new kind of seaweed, they install an armored cable in 1851 that will last for many years.
1863 US National Academy of Sciences initiated by Abraham Lincoln
1868 First traffic lights introduced to ease problems in London
1869 Joseph Lockyer founded Nature journal
1869 In the US, a transcontinental railway is completed
1871 Gramme introduced the first commercially-significant electric motor, following 50 years of research across the world
1874 Invention of the QWERTY Keyboard Typewriter
Christopher Sholes, Samuel Soule and Carlos Glidden invented the first practical typewriter in 1868.
1875 The Earliest Exhibition Exclusively of Scientific Instruments
The earliest international exposition exclusively of scientific instruments is held at the South Kensington Museum, London.
1875 Bell Invents the telephone March 10
Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone. Speaking through the instrument to his assistant, Thomas A. Watson, in the next room, Bell says "Mr. Watson--come here--I want to see you."
1876 Elizabeth Bragg, graduated from Berkeley as a Civil Engineer
1877 The First Regular Telephone Line Construction of the first regular telephone line is completed. It runs from Boston to Somerville, Massachusetts.
1877 Invention of the Microphone March 4 Emile Berliner invents the microphone. It is used as a telephone speech transmitter.
1882 First vaccine for rabies
1885 Daimler Invents the Internal Combustion Engine Gottlieb Daimler invents the internal combustion engine and Karl Benz builds a single-cylinder engine for a motor car.
1887 An estimated 1 million people die as the result of flooding, when the Chinese Yellow River bursts its banks
1893 Invention of the Automobile Karl Benz invents a four-wheel automobile. Charles and Frank Duryea produce the first automobile built in America during this year.
1899 Johan Vaaler invented the paperclip
1855 David Livingstone became the first European to see Victoria Falls
1860 Burke and Wills led Great Northern Exploration Expedition to cross Australia from South to North
1867 Alaska is bought by the US from Russia
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