Contexts up to 1600

Physics related to temperature and heat
Other sciences
Before 1600
1592 Galileo Galilei develops the thermoscope
1593 Galileo Galilei invents a water thermometer

1559 Who Discovered the Pulmonary Circulation?
In the year of his death Italian physician and surgeon Realdo Colombo publishes De re anatomica libri XV in Venice. Colombo is best known for his discovery of the pulmonary or lesser circulation, i.e., the passage of blood from the right cardiac ventricle to the left via the lungs. Although this discovery was first published in the Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556) by Colombo's friend and former pupil Juan Valverde de Hamusco, the evidence in both Valverde's and Colombo's accounts indicates that the discovery was Colombo's, made through his vivisectional observations of the heart and pulmonary vessels. Colombo's account of the pulmonary circuit was preceded by that in Michael Servetus's Christianismi restitutio, and by the thirteenth-century account of Ibn al-Nafis. However, because Servetus Christianismi restitutio (1553) was completely supressed, and Ibn al-Nafis' work was not published until the early 20th century, there is no evidence that either was available to Colombo at the time.
1563 – 1564 The Eustachian Tube and Many Other Discoveries Physician Bartolomeo Eustachi publishes Opuscula anatomica, annotated by Pier Matteo Pini, in Venice. It includes 8 engraved full-page text illustrations probably drawn by Eustachi and his relative Pier Matteo Pini, and engraved by Giulio de Musi. Pini also prepared the 168 pages of annotations to Eustachi's anatomical treatises. The illustrations are on the unnumbered pages between pp. 1-20 (first series). These plates are the first 8 in the series of 47 anatomical plates that Eustachi and Pini prepared in 1552, and the only ones of that series published during Eustachi's lifetime.
In 1562 and 1563 Eustachi wrote a series of anatomical treatises on the kidneys (De renum structura), the organ of hearing (De auditus organis), the venous system (De vena quae azygos graecis dicitur) and the teeth (De dentibus), which he issued together under the title Opuscula anatomica. The treatise on the kidney, the first work devoted specifically to that organ, showed a detailed knowledge of the kidney surpassing any earlier work; it contained the first account of the adrenal (suprarenal) gland and a correct determination of the relative levels of the kidneys. The treatise on the ear provided the first post-classical account of the Eustachian tube, while the work on the azygos vein contained the first description of the thoracic duct and of the valvula venae in the right ventricle of the heart, the so-called "Eustachian valve." In his treatise on dentistry Eustachi was the first to study the teeth in any great detail: basing his work on the dissection of fetuses and stillborn infants, he gave an important description of the first and second dentitions, described the hard outer tissue and soft inner structure of the teeth, and attempted an explanation of the problem (not yet completely solved) of the sensitivity of the tooth's hard structure. This last work was also issued separately; it bears its own title-leaf dated 1563.
1563 In an Expose of the Witchcraft Delusion, One of the First Scientific Approaches to the Study of Mental Illness. Dutch physician and demonologist Johann Weyer publishes De praestigiis daemonum, et incantationibus ac veneficiis, libri V. In this celebrated exposé of the witchcraft delusion Weyer presented one of the first scientific approaches to the study of mental illness. Defying the authorities of the Inquisition and the doctrines of the Malleus maleficarum (noticed in this database), Weyer asserted the most witches were actually suffering from mental illness. He backed his claim with careful descriptions of a number of case histories from his own clinical experience, containing some of the earliest references to purely psychological treatment. To emphasize the superstitious ignorance of doctors who adhered to demonological theory, Weyer analyzed the effects of the stupefying and hallucinatory drugs used in sixteenth-century medicine, attributing many aspects of witchcraft to their effects. He recognized the relationship between a highly suggestible temperament and mental instability, and described the phenomenon of mass contagion of mental illness.
1570 The First Medical Book Printed in the Western Hemisphere with the Earliest Illustrations of Plants Printed in the Western Hemisphere Printer Pedro Ocharte, born Pierre Ocharte in Rouen, France, working in Mexico City, issues Opera medicinalia by the Spanish physician, Francisco Bravo. Ocharte had married the daughter of Juan Pablos, the first printer in the New World, and inherited his equipment. Opera medicinalia includes a woodcut title border and a few botanical woodcuts, including images to distinguish the false saraparilla of Mexico from the true Spanish sarsaparilla of Dioscorides. It is the first medical book printed in the Western Hemisphere, and its botanical images are the first illustrations of plants printed in the Western Hemisphere.
1598 The First Book Devoted Exclusively to the Structure of an Animal Other than Man. Ottavio Ruini edits and has published, with a dedication to Cardinal Pietro Aldobrandini, Dell'anotomia [sic], et dell'infirmita del cavallo [Book ii: Dell'infirmita del cavallo] by Carlo Ruini, Bolognese aristocrat, senator, and high-ranking lawyer. It is the first book devoted exclusively to the structure of an animal other than man (the horse).
1520 - 1522 First circumnavigation of the world.
1556 The First Treatise on Mathematics Published in the Western Hemisphere and the First Textbook on Any Subject Besides Religion Printed Outside of Europe
1556 Brother Juan Diez, a companion of Hernando Cortès in the conquest of New Spain, publishes in Mexico City at the press of Juan Pablo, the Sumario Compendioso. It is the earliest treatise on mathematics published in the western hemisphere, and also the first textbook on any subject besides religious instruction to be printed outside of Europe.
1563 It is Forbidden for any French Printer to Print without Permission, under Penalty of being Hanged or Strangled By Letters Patent of the thirteen year old Charles IX of France (Mantes September 10)
1566 Notzie Scritte - one of the first newspapers appears in Venice
1571 Francesco Patrizi's Discussiones peripateticae anti-Aristotelian arguments
1574 University of Berlin is founded
1575 Italian painter Frederigo Zuccari paints portraits of Elizabeth I and Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester
1579 Paulo Paruta, official historian of Venice and disciple of Macchiavelli begins his Historiae Vinetiana
1580 Italian cookery predominant in Europe
1598 Edict of Nantes, under which Protestants in France are allowed to practice their religion in peace.
1290 Edward I Expels the Jews from England
1453 Fall of Constantinople to the Turks
1492 Columbus lands in the New World Jews and Moslems expelled from Spain
1492 Vasco Da Gama lands in Goa (Indian subcontinent)
1500 Birth of Charles V of Hapsburg, who became Lord of the Netherlands in 1515, King of Spain in 1516, and was elected Holy Roman Emperor (German-speaking region) in 1519. He ruled most of Europe until his abdication in 1556.
1558 Elizabeth I of Tudor becomes Queen of England. Her rule lasts until her death in 1603.
1562 Beginning of wars of religion in France. These last until Henry IV of Navarre ascends the throne